With its comprehensive, succinct, and applied coverage, the book has proven its ability to capture readers' interest while introducing them to the issues, forces, and outcomes that make us who we are. The material is relevant, too: Readers gain the foundations in important theories and research that enable them to become educated interpreters of developmental information.
Students may use the 5th or 6th edition of this text. BTC Campus Store store btc. Enter your keywords:. With its comprehensive, succinct, and applied coverage, the text has proven its ability to capture students' interest while introducing them to the issues, forces, and outcomes that make us who we are. Robert V. Kail's expertise in childhood and adolescence, combined with John C.
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Cavanaugh's extensive research in gerontology, result in a book with a rich description of all life-span stages and important topics. A modified chronological approach traces development in sequential order from conception through late life, while also dedicating several chapters to key topical issues. Whereas social context is facilitative for older adults when interpersonal, ill-structured problem dilemmas are presented, there is still compelling evidence for negative age-related effects for more instrumental, well-structured tasks.
However, it should be noted that this chapter focuses on problem-solving tasks that are highly related to fluid intelligence abilities.
There is a growing compilation of research focusing more on ill-structured interpersonal problem solving. Ill-structured problems are unpredictable and continually transforming.
They require individuals to appraise the demands of the situation and decide between many potentially effective solutions depending upon the trade-offs they are willing to make. This is an area where older adults can draw on social context experience and they have been shown to outperform young adults.
With this growing area, future Handbook chapters on this area need to incorporate a more complete picture of everyday problem solving in older adulthood. In a chapter by Thomas Hess, internalized social context and how this can negatively affect behavior take center stage. Hess convincingly describes evidence that internalized societal attitudes in others and in the aging adult influence behavior of older adults.
The chapter particularly focuses on how negative attitudes about aging degrade the cognitive performance of older adults. Although addressed in the chapter, there are a host of remaining questions regarding the mechanisms underlying the influence of attitudes on behavior. Understanding the mechanisms by which stereotypes and attitudes have an impact on memory will result in a better understanding of when social context is debilitative for older adults. Just as important, it will also allow for a better understanding of those contexts that might facilitate older adults' cognitive performance.
Again, it is suggested that negative assumptions about how older adults communicate can lead to inappropriate over accommodation in speech on the part of young adults, i. This can give rise to reductions in self-esteem and communication efficacy, among others.
Furthermore, the chapters that cover health, personality, wisdom, and autobiography reflect the increasing importance of placing behaviors in a socioemotional context of everyday living. Overall, these chapters underscore the idea that functioning must be examined in terms of individual, social, emotional, and cultural variations as well as their interactions Baltes et al.
Historically, intraindividual variability has often been considered measurement error or noise Luszcz, More recently, however, problems associated with this approach suggest that it is unclear whether performance measured at a specific point in time is representative of the person's typical performance.
And it is questionable whether the differences found between people of different ages are equivalent to the changes that occur within individuals. They argue that many human phenomena are nonergodic, that is inter-individual and intra-individual variability are not equivalent Molennaar, Thus, attention has been refocused to studying the individual as the unit for the observation of developmental change by investigating individual differences in intraindividual variability. New statistical analytical procedures to analyze longitudinal data are described that consider such variability in long term studies of intraindividual change.
These studies have furthered our understanding of individual differences in rate of change in personality traits. An area that has received considerable attention in the psychological literature in the past decade, and reflected in these chapters, is the importance of studying short-term intraindividual variability.
As indicated in the chapter by Daniel Mroczek and colleagues, short-term variability may be an important predictor of different outcomes over and above mean levels of functioning. Overall, the important point is made that measuring performance using single assessments is questionable given that considerable short-term variation and inter-individual differences in short-term variation are found even for highly reliable measures, e. A life span perspective is used to interpret such variability; early in the life span a high amount of intra-individual variability may reflect plasticity and the potential to grow and advance.
Theories of adult development need to incorporate both mean levels and variability in performance to account for age-associated developmental phenomena. A major complaint regarding the health and aging literature is that it routinely lacks theoretical perspective. By couching health and optimal aging in a life span perspective, they reveal that in recent years, attention in the field has changed towards considering health as a process that is related to other changes in the individual.
This chapter also highlights the dynamic interplay between health and other areas of functioning including cognition, religiosity, wisdom, and personality, among others. Of course, the issue of causal relationship between health and functioning needs further attention.
In stock online. This is an area where older adults can draw on social context experience and they have been shown to outperform young adults. Human Development and Capacity Building presents case Overall, these chapters underscore the idea that functioning must be examined in terms of individual, social, emotional, and cultural variations as well as their interactions Baltes et al. Also in This Series.
As indicated above, the Kramer et al. Additional theoretical work on the specific mechanisms of health behaviors needs to be theoretically and empirically investigated. Considering that behavior is influenced by multiple factors, as well as the importance of multiple levels of analysis, progress in neuroscience and aging embraces the spirit of a life span developmental perspective. The 21 st century has been called the century of the brain, catapulted by recent technological advances, with the development of noninvasive technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging DTI.
The chapter by Kramer and colleagues outlines how neuroscientific approaches have been applied to research questions regarding cognitive aging and, importantly, further elaborates on theories of cognitive aging. Whereas classic cognitive aging theories were developed on behavioral data, the recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have revealed findings that enhance theoretical explanations of normal and pathological aging.
codienvietnam.com/includes/kosten-fuer/2124-angebote-single-mit.php For example, researchers find greater nonselective activation of brain regions in the aging brain, i. Although not explored in the Kramer et al. This link with the behavioral evidence for emotion-cognitive interface at the behavioral level will most likely be a topic of interest in future Handbooks. It should also be noted that because of the relatively new technologies, the field is still in its infancy and no definite conclusions can be drawn at this point in time. For example, questions remain as to whether overactivation found in older brains relative to younger adults reflects successful compensation or reflects greater cognitive deficits.
I have highlighted a number of the recent advances in the study of psychology and aging described in the sixth edition of the Handbook.
These have centered on more explicit operationalization of life span developmental tenets along with increased attention to intra-individual variability, neuroscience, and socioemotional context. I have not given justice to all the other excellent chapters in this Handbook. However, overall, the spirit of multidisciplinary approaches to the study of psychology and aging is alive and well.
What makes this Handbook edition unique is the explicit focus on linkages between disciplines in entire chapters such as the link between emotion and cognition and social context and cognition, and within chapters such as the link between exercise and cognition as well as health and multiple behavioral domains of functioning. Behavior is indeed influenced by multiple factors and we are becoming much more adept at incorporating multiple levels of analysis in our approach to studying changes in the psychology of aging.