At the same time, be pragmatic and learn how to develop an understanding of when to abandon an idea. A project can become a cul-de-sac and your life might slip through your fingers in pursuit of something that can never be realized. Know when to walk away. Perseverance has kept me going over the years. Things rarely happen overnight. Filmmakers should be prepared for many years of hard work. The sheer toil can be healthy and exhilarating. Although for many years I lived hand to mouth — sometimes in semi-poverty — I have lived like a rich man ever since I started making films. Throughout my life I have been able to do what I truly love, which is more valuable than any cash you could throw at me.
At a time when friends were establishing themselves by getting university degrees, going into business, building careers and buying houses, I was making films, investing everything back into my work. Money lost, film gained. Ultimately, this notion of doing what you love is rooted in defining your own success , which often requires the bravery of not buying into the cultural template.
Herzog captures this elegantly:. What makes me rich is that I am welcomed almost everywhere.
I can show up with my films and am offered hospitality, something you could never achieve with money alone… For years I have struggled harder than you can imagine for true liberty, and today am privileged in the way the boss of a huge corporation never will be. I try to give meaning to my existence through my work. I have always enjoyed my work. I am well aware of the many aspiring filmmakers out there with good ideas who never find a foothold.
At the age of fourteen, once I realized filmmaking was an uninvited duty for me, I had no choice but to push on with my projects. Cinema has given me everything, but has also taken everything from me. Herzog describes his ideation process in almost violent terms, framing the creative act as an inherently ambivalent one, oscillating between creation, destruction, and purging:. My ideas are like uninvited guests. The one to be wrestled to the floor before all others is the one coming at me with the most vehemence.
I have, over the years, developed methods to deal with the invaders as quickly and efficiently as possible, though the burglars never stop coming. You invite a handful of friends for dinner, but the door bursts open and a hundred people are pushing in. You might manage to get rid of them, but from around the corner another fifty appear almost immediately… Finishing a film is like having a great weight lifted from my shoulders. Channeling T.
My films come to me very much alive, like dreams, without explanation. I never think about what it all means.
I think only about telling a story, and however illogical the images, I let them invade me. An idea comes to me, and then, over a period of time — perhaps while driving or walking — this blurred vision becomes clearer in my mind, pulling itself into focus.
When I write, I sit in front of the computer and pound the keys. But the centrality of the state has changed over time, becoming stronger in the late th and early 20 th centuries, but waning in more recent decades. Perhaps most important, developing nations may soon face a similar problem as developed ones: the end of work.
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Automation, still at a relatively early stage, has the potential to make the majority of the human work force in a society unnecessary to the production of basic value, to and even beyond the satisfaction of basic needs. But to work is to have dignity: There is no model of a successful human civilization where people are superfluous to the well-being of the commons. No quantitative measure can capture the meaning of work in civilizational terms.
This is a challenge—whether very great or less so we are still trying to understand and anticipate—that developing and developed nations are fated to meet together in the decades ahead. But unpleasant or not, it is the term used to describe the power of education for purposes of political and economic development, and no obviously better substitute exists—so we will use it. As we have substituted mechanical power for human labor over the past several centuries indeed, for longer than that if one considers the ard plough and the millstone powered by domesticated animals , so in more recent times we have been augmenting mechanical power with conceptual innovation.
This is why societies playing catch-up to the global leaders using an industrial template find themselves falling further behind relatively even as their absolute achievements demonstrate success. Education is a very broad and elastic term.
It begs the questions of what kind of education, for what purposes, for what array of distributed tasks in a society. It is a good idea, for example, to send significant numbers of promising students abroad for higher education, or is it better to develop quickly those educational institutions on home soil? How important really is elementary education, if the number of key innovators and scientists a nation needs to achieve top-rank is really quite modest?
These are good questions, and not even in the United States and other advanced countries are there stable consensus answers to them. Here we emphasize only two points. The first, which we can dispense with very quickly, is that knowledge-based economies require educated people at all levels, so elementary education is as important as secondary and higher education.
The CEO was concerned that he might lose a talented executive. The two are not the same, and there are cultures in the world that still lack that development. A Normal. The state, arguably, destroys the natural initiative and responsibility that arise from voluntary cooperation. According to Maimonides, the book of Job illustrates the several views which have been mentioned above. Thus it came that Rabbi Solomon and his disciples turned their wrath against the writings of Maimonides instead of combating the arguments of the pseudo-Maimonists. To a well the waters or which are at a great depth, and though cool and fresh, yet no man could drink of them.
People need to be educated as consumers as well as producers, as contributing to social infrastructure as parents and teachers as well as making products and offering services. The second point is just as important, but is far more challenging to explain and illustrate. It is well known the world over that forms of traditional education that stress memorization and unquestioned obedience to the authority of teachers is not the same as education that stresses giving students the ability to think critically and creatively.
The aforementioned advent in the West of individual agency over communal agency is deeply relevant here. So is the pluralization of religious belief at a certain point in the history of Western Christianity—mainly the 16 th and 17 th centuries—which inadvertently made a virtue of doubt , and from what was basically an historical accident generated a concept of genuine tolerance for intellectual and theological diversity out of what had before been merely forbearance.
The two are not the same, and there are cultures in the world that still lack that development.
That is a Western conceit born of ignorance, or a lack of interest in others, or both. The scientific-rationalist idea of causality is instrumental, not fundamental.
It is not interested in first-mover causes, namely the character of creation. That matter the Westerners left to theologians in a social world increasingly characterized by intellectual moduality. Other models of causality are interested in what is fundamental, meaning that it is not easy to divorce philosophy from pragmatics. Philosophies linked to theologies which insist that the prime or first cause continuously recreates the universe each second are not compatible with instrumental rationality. When the two became separate in the West, it became possible to credit the virtue of experimentation for the sake of sating curiosity, and for the practical application of knowledge.
Absent any church-based tests of such experimentation, freedom of inquiry led to massive examples of practical innovation. Experimentation, and the human spirit that animates it, is critical for development. A dissatisfaction with the status quo is not as important as the excitement that comes from discovery, and discovery requires an experimental attitude. A theology-directed way of thinking holds that certain abstract verities are true and will always be true, so that one can go from principle to application directly.
This is analogous to the Western modernization assumption that pure theory could be translated down into universal development praxis. This is mistaken. As already noted, because of cultural and factor-endowment diversity, there is no one road to success. So it is necessary to try out many ways to solve an identified core problem, to see what works, and to patiently move to prototyping methodologies before scaling up to full level effort. The Enlightenment also led to the idea that there were discrete data in the world—facts—that existed separate from what anyone felt about them.
Again, when no theological test was applied to whether the earth rotated around the sun or the other way around, it was possible, eventually, to make rapid progress applying new scientific instrumentation the optics of telescopes, for example to discoveries about the natural world.