Modality and the Biblical Hebrew Infinitive Absolute

Modality and the Biblical Hebrew Infinitive Absolute (ABHANDLUNGEN FuR DIE KUNDE DES MORGENLANDES)
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A search on Bibleworks 8 with Westminster Hebrew Morphology 4. Electronic analysis with another database version or a different coding system would likely return varying results. Indeed, the Westminster Hebrew Morphology reduced its infinitive absolute count from in version 4. The present study identifies infinitives absolute in the Hebrew Bible. Appendix 1 lists these infinitives absolute and displays them in tabular form with data pertinent to the study.

22.01 Infinitive Construct

However, a number of other ancient Semitic languages also feature an infinitive absolute. See Burton L. The present study draws attention to certain Hebrew words through employing vowel pointing and a darker font than surrounding unpointed text. Unless otherwise indicated, bold type then identifies the corresponding concept in translation, as shown in the case of Isa above. Their solution was a literalistic translation that was unidiomatic in Koine Greek, just as the wooden English rendering above stands apart from contemporary English usage.

Elliger, W. Rudolph, and H. Biblical citations follow the BHS enumeration of verses. This is a literalistic translation of the Greek text, not the Hebrew. All translations into English in the present study derive from the author. New York: Cambridge University Press, , —8.

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Clark, , 75—6; idem, vol. Clark, , —30; idem, vol. Clark, , —7; A. Blass and A. Robert W. Specialized studies on Septuagintal translation of the Hebrew infinitive absolute include G. Strangely, the infinitive construct mimics the infinitive absolute in this manner in Neh , Ps , and Ezek See Steven E. The spelling of the infinitive absolute in Ezek is anomalous.

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Vogel, , In general, Biblical Hebrew employs repetition of a word or its root to reinforce the significance of the word or to apply some kind of stress. An example of the cognate accusative appears in Ps 16 Goddard, 30; Huesman, 8. New York: Oxford University Press, , See Figure 1 below. James Kennedy Edinburgh: T. Clark, , Van der Merwe, Jackie A. Stanley E. Porter and Richard S.

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Alongside several related ancient languages, Biblical Hebrew possesses two infinitive forms. The rarer of the two is the infinitive absolute, for which no. Modality and the Biblical Hebrew Infinitive Absolute ( ABHANDLUNGEN FuR DIE KUNDE DES MORGENLANDES) (): Scott N.

Hess Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, , See Christo H. Infinitive of German Language and its Corresponding Forms. Modalization can be expressed by means of Finite modal operators, modal Adjuncts or both. Proposals, on the other hand, are related to the concept of modulation, and refer to the interpersonal acts of prescribing and proscribing. It begins by reviewing two recent attempts at applying SFG to the biblical text, and rejecting them as inadequate. This is followed by a discussion of how the basic speech functions are realized in an example of dialogic interaction.

The Biblical Hebrew MOOD system is then presented and analyzed, including the individual elements involved in the Mood structure and those systems involved in modal assessment.

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In example [57] there are two circumstantial Adjuncts of place, the first one realised by an adverbial group and the second by a prepositional phrase. In terms of interpersonal interaction, therefore, these two Negotiators can be interpreted as optional markers of mood type. Fujian - Penghu - Taiwan Roderich Ptak. The imperative is associated with the second person, cohortative with the first person and jussive with the third sometimes second person van der Merwe et al. One section each is dedicated to Mood in declarative, interrogative, volitive and in minor and elliptical clauses, ending with a brief discussion of extensions of Mood analysis. Caffarel, A.

Bandstra Bandstra is a handbook for intermediate and advanced students of BH, which provides a detailed systemic functional analysis of the text of Genesis chapters one through eleven, as well as a basic introduction to SFG focused on the three metafunctions in the BH clause. Furthermore, Bandstra Bandstra discusses tests for the determination of the Subject which are based on his English translation of the BH clause used as an example, and which do not work with the original Hebrew text.

While the bulk of the text is concerned with the problem, methods and analysis, the author does provide an attempt at outlining the lexicogrammar of BH prose texts. Tatu begins his description of BH Mood with an exposition of the basic speech functions, their realizations in different Mood types and the typical order of constituents in the realization of each Mood type in the mood structure.

Furthermore, although constituent order is a vital aspect of the realization of Mood type in English, the order of constituents is not relevant to the selection of Mood in BH, although a possible exception is discussed below in section Mood type.

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The Finite and Predicator are described as a fused element, taking part in both the Mood and the Residue. Tatu also uses a similar English example of the mood tag structure to illustrate the notion of Subject in BH. The Mood element may also contain mood Adjuncts, which are described as adverbial groups expressing temporality, modality and intensity.

Some aspects of modality and the verb are discussed, with the author noting a scholarly consensus that BH does not possess auxiliary verbs cf.

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Chrzanowski One section each is dedicated to Mood in declarative, interrogative, volitive and in minor and elliptical clauses, ending with a brief discussion of extensions of Mood analysis. Although both of these texts will prove useful for anyone interested in the systemic functional description of Biblical Hebrew, the flaws described above demonstrate the need for an alternative account which more accurately describes the interpersonal resources available in Biblical Hebrew.

An outline of such an account will be sketched in the following sections. This section presents an account of the main features of the interpersonal grammar of the Biblical Hebrew clause. First, a dialogue will be presented and discussed, in order to outline the relationship between the basic speech functions on the semantic stratum and their realization in the lexicogrammatical resources at clause rank.

Perhaps the motivation for certain aspects of the analysis will not be immediately clear; however, the details are explained more fully in the sections which follow. SFG proposes a relationship between the modes of meaning of the three metafunctions and their respective modes of expression. As regards the interpersonal metafunction, its mode of meaning is enactment, and its mode of expression is prosody, i.

The various systems that make up the system network of MOOD in BH serve to enact tenor relations between interactants in dialogue in the Hebrew text. The following edited dialogue Footnote 3 will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the basic speech functions and their realization in the Mood structure of the Hebrew clause.

1 Hebrew Tense and Aspect in: The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Saul then agrees in the first clause of [12] and issues another command in the second half. Of particular interest here is the absence of a pronomial Subject element for the speech roles of the two interlocutors, and the central role played by the various forms of the verbs for go and return as the negotiation unfolds, facts which are discussed in more detail below.

From the interpersonal perspective, each move realized by a single, free clause in the dialogue represents an attempt to do or achieve something, with the interactants recognizing one another and the communicative acts that each of them have performed, and responding to them accordingly. This command is congruently realized by means of a volitive form.

One More Look at the Negation of the Infinitive Construct in Second Temple Hebrew

Examples [2] and [3], on the other hand, give information, and are congruently realized by declarative clauses, whereas the questions demanding information in examples [7], [8] and [14] are also congruently realized by means of interrogative clauses. These are not intended as exhaustive of all the realizational possibilities available for each of these choices, but rather as typical, congruent realizations, using examples from the dialogue above.

The purpose of the present section is to provide an account of the realization of Mood in the Biblical Hebrew clause, to supplement the general ideas presented in the previous section. The realization of this distinction is characterized by distinct verbal inflections for volitives and declaratives. The imperative is associated with the second person, cohortative with the first person and jussive with the third sometimes second person van der Merwe et al. The indicative option involves a further choice between declarative clauses and interrogative ones, and the interrogative option distinguishes between polar interrogatives and elemental interrogatives.

Generally, the contrast between declarative and interrogative is realized by the presence in interrogative clauses either of the interrogative Negotiator h a - polar or of an interrogative pro-form which substitutes for a Subject, Complement or circumstantial Adjunct, depending the information being queried in an elemental interrogative. In summary, the prosodic patterns which relate to the least delicate distinctions in the BH mood system are realized by means of segments strongly associated with clause-initial position.

The following examples illustrate the distinction between volitive and indicative. In [16], the verbal element is located in its typical, clause-initial position, whereas in [17] it is preceded by a circumstantial Adjunct in thematic position. Christiansen Christiansen describes this Negotiator as a propositive particle when it accompanies a cohortative or jussive volitive, and as a politeness particle when it accompanies the imperative.

Gesenius et al.

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Van der Merwe et al. The present study will use the provisional term EMPHASIS to refer to the proposed system realized by this morpheme, while recognizing the shortcomings of such a general and unhelpful label. The system of indicative type allows for selection between declarative and interrogative clause types. Declarative clauses are unmarked with respect to indicative type, whereas interrogative clauses are typically marked in various ways depending on the type. Elemental interrogatives are characterized by the presence of an interrogative pro-form, which can be assigned the functional role of Subject, Complement or Adjunct, depending on the nature of what is being queried.

In example [22], the interrogative pro-form functions as the Subject in the Mood structure, while in [23] it functions as Complement and in [24] as an Adjunct.